Failure of household appliances almost always entails significant monetary costs. Especially when it comes to large equipment – refrigerator, electric oven or washing machine. Calling a master, just to determine the breakdown and identify its causes, as a rule, paid. And then follows the call of a cargo cab, delivery of household appliances to the workshop, etc. In this article, I will describe the most typical malfunctions of the washing machine, their probable causes, as well as ways of self-repair.
Regardless of the manufacturer and model, all typical breakdowns of the washing machine can be summarized in the following list:
- Does not drain water during operation or spin;
- Does not turn on – the control panel is not lit;
- Does not heat water;
- During spinning, the program hangs or the function does not work;
- Does not open the loading hatch.
- Let’s consider the listed malfunctions of washing machines their causes and elimination in more detail.
Does not drain water during operation or spinning
If you notice that the water does not drain for a long time during the spin or standard washing cycle, interrupt the washing program and set the forced drain function. If this has no effect, you should first check the drain hose before panicking. The cause may be a severe bend or compression. If there is nothing wrong with the hose, the reasons could be as follows:
- A clogged filter and/or the spigot between the tank and the drain pump;
- Clogging of the sewer trap where the drain hose is connected;
- Failure or clogging of the drain pump.
Clogs are cleared up fairly quickly. Only when you open the filter, the water from the tank will begin to pour out. Have a basin and rags ready to deal with the flood.
If the drain pump is out of order, the situation is worse, but not by much. During each wash, water is drained from the tank at least three times, in total about 30 liters comes out. If you do not systematically clean the drain filter and use strong (aggressive) detergents, the pump can fail quite quickly.
After all the gaps have been eliminated it is necessary to check whether the pump has failed or not. The tank of the washing machine is filled with water and the “drain” mode is turned on. Water should come out of the drain hose under pressure. If the water flows very weakly, almost by gravity, the pump must be replaced.
Depending on the brand, the drain pump can be removed from the front or from the bottom
In the market or on a website selling spare parts for household appliances, order a similar pump and put it in place.
Does not turn on – control panel does not light up
It happens quite often that the control panel and/or indicators do not light up after power surges. In all likelihood, this means that the central control board has failed. Such modules are repaired quite easily, if you understand electronics. All washing machines are equipped with control modules with switching power supplies.
board power supply
The most common cause of control module failure is a capacitor failure in the cold circuit. A burnt capacitor can be easily detected by a blown top plane.
If such a bloat is detected, the capacitor should simply be replaced with a working one. Troubleshooting the circuit board in the washing machine is best done only if you are 100% sure of the result.
If the washing machine does not turn on at all, the cause may be a burnt-out surge protector. This is not that filter with a glowing button and a lot of sockets, but a device that blocks interference from the washing machine – FPS (anti-interference mains filter).
It is checked simply by testing the contacts on the input and output with a tester. If there is no contact, the FPS must be replaced with a new one.
There is one trick. If it is not possible to buy and install FPS, you can connect the contacts that go to it directly. The washing machine in this case will work without problems. But then when washing it is better to disconnect the delicate electronics in the apartment: computers, televisions, etc. Since the washing machine will already interfere with the power grid.
The cause of malfunction of the washing machine electronics is poor power quality – voltage surges. Despite the popular belief that connecting the washing machine to a separate RCD can protect it, this is not true. The only reliable protection is to connect the device through an impulse voltage stabilizer. If it does not exist, then after washing, simply remove the power cord and socket.
Does not heat water
If the washing machine does not warm water, that is almost always the reason in a failed heater – TEN. TEN breakdown is a fairly common phenomenon, most often occurs due to the formation of scale in regions with hard water.
How to determine the failure of the TEN in the washing machine? Select a program with high washing temperature and after 15 minutes put your hand to the glass hatch. If the glass is cold, the machine does not heat water. Since the heating element itself cannot be repaired, it must be replaced with a new one in any case.
It is quite easy to replace the heating element. To do this, turn the washing machine on its side to access the heating element from below. In some models it is located in an unfortunate way and it may be necessary to remove the outer metal casing. After access to the TENS is obtained from him disconnect the contacts and unscrew the central clamping nut. It also serves as a locking device for the ground terminal.
If a puddle has formed under the machine during washing, check the following areas for leaks:
- Supply hose;
- Loading door collar;
- Pump, filter and drain connection;
- Tank gasket;
- The pull-out powder dispenser and its water supply pipes.
Fill hose connection points – tighten the nut more tightly, but without using a wrench.
Leakage from under the bottom of the washing machine. Lay it on its side and check all connections between the drain pump, filter and drain pipe. It is necessary to tighten the clamps more tightly. If the pipe material has lost its elasticity, it is better to replace the part completely. But as a temporary measure, for 1-2 washes, the seating place can be lubricated with some sealant, then install the branch pipe and tighten the clamp.
Very often during washing, foreign sharp objects fall out of the pockets, which can damage the cuff near the hatch. In this case, the only solution is to simply replace it. The cuff is made of silicone and cannot be repaired.
This fault is especially likely to occur in vertical washing machines, as they have a large-area cuff.
For a vertical washing machine, replacing the cuff is a rather troublesome procedure, but it does not require special skills, only accuracy. The plastic retainer that holds the cuff on the metal or plastic body does not provide for the possibility of removal or reuse, so it must be carefully cut or removed in another way (pliers, pliers).
The cuff itself should have a special profile, which is put on the ledge – seating place, up to the stop. During installation, special attention should be paid to the markers. Both on the cuff and on the body of the washing machine there are arrows, and in the cuff there are additional protrusions fixators. These must be carefully positioned in the correct places.
When buying a replacement collar, make sure the repair kit includes retainers.
During spinning, the program freezes or the function does not work
The causes of no spin can be either mechanical or programmatic at the level of the control electronics. In order to rule out a breakdown at the electronics level, it is necessary to run the spin function separately and see if the control panel of the washing machine shows any fault codes. If the machine control is touch screen and has a large screen, then the failure of the function will be accompanied by the symbols “ERROR”, followed by a numeric error code. With an analog control system is a little more complicated. It is represented by indicators that begin to glow or flicker when an error occurs.
One of the most common causes of failure of the spin function is the failure of the tachometer sensor or breakage of the wires that transmit the control signal from the tachodatcher to the engine. In this case, repair with your own hands is quite problematic. As it is necessary to have professional equipment for testing.
Mechanical causes of failure or poor performance of the spin function can be eliminated by yourself:
The belt that transmits torque from the motor to the drum has stretched. This problem is especially common in compact (narrow) washing machines.
Wear of the motor brushes occurs during intensive use over a long period of time. In this case, the washing machine works quite successfully at low speeds, but for spinning (maximum speed) the power is no longer sufficient.
To replace the brushes, remove the motor and locate the brush holders (they may look different on different models), remove one of the brushes and purchase similar brushes from a store. The need to replace the brushes can be determined by the size of their protrusion from the brush holder. If at least one of them is less than 7 mm, both brushes must be replaced.
Extraneous knocking sounds during operation
As a rule, extraneous noises occur during the spin cycle when the engine is running at maximum speed. There are two main causes of strong vibration and noise:
Wear of shock absorbers.
On average, a bearing is designed to last 7-10 years. In order to identify problems in the bearings you should take the drum by hand and slightly rotate it back and forth and from side to side. There should not be any extraneous sounds, and the play between the drum edge and the cuff should be minimal. If there is at least one of the signs, the bearings should be replaced. This is a rather laborious and complex repair of the washing machine malfunction and not everyone is able to do it with their own hands.
The process involves complete disassembly and removal of the tank and drum, pressing out the bearings and oil seal, installation of new bearings with subsequent assembly.
Loading hatch does not open
The loading door is locked for the duration of the wash cycle. The blocking process is controlled by a ceramic resistor. After the program has completed all the functions and the resistor is no longer powered, it insists for 1-2 minutes and only then the blocking plates take the initial position and the door can be opened.
One of the possible causes of failure of the locking mechanism of the washing machine is constant voltage fluctuations. They can lead to wear of bimetallic plates or simply burn the contacts.
Burned lock contacts